Jackson Immuno Research Inc.
specializing in secondary antibodies and conjugates

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Secondary Antibodies

For VHH Discovery

Anti-Alpaca IgG, Subclass and VHH domain secondaries
  • Ideally time PBMC harvest
  • Enhance detection of VHH antibodies
  • Test for VHH expression and binding activity

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Whole IgG Affinity-Purified Secondary Antibodies

"I have used a wide variety of secondaries and Jackson ImmunoResearch has consistently been the best. The fluorophores are bright and stable and their selective (x reactivity removed) secondaries have always shown species specificity in multiple labeling."

Janet Duerr, Ohio University

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Conjugate Selection

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Probes Conjugated to Affinity-Purified Antibodies and Other Proteins

Technical Information on Enzymes and Biotin

Biotin-SP (long-spacer)

Enzymes - Horseradish Peroxidase and Alkaline Phosphatase

Technical Information on Fluorescent Dyes

Selection of fluorophores depends on:

  1. Instrument set-up. Examples include availability of light sources, filter sets, and detection systems.
  2. Degree of color separation desired for multiple labeling. For example, to achieve good color separation from Alexa Fluor® 488, choose a shorter wavelength-emitting fluorophore such as DyLight 405 and/or longer wavelength-emitting fluorphores such as Rhodamine Red-X, Alexa Fluor® 594, or Alexa Fluor® 647.
  3. Sensitivity required. For example, Alexa Fluor® 488 is brighter than FITC.

The following seventeen fluorescent dye conjugates (Figure 1, table 1) are currently available from Jackson ImmunoResearch, and includes dyes in the Alexa Fluor®, Brilliant Violet™ and Cyanine ranges. They cover the most commonly used excitation sources and filter sets from blue to infrared emissions. Click on each fluorophore for more information.

Please note that we also have limited stock of DyLight™ 488 / 549 / 594 / 649 and Texas Red® conjugates.

Effective 4-color imaging with good color separation, good photostability, and high sensitivity is possible with combinations such as DyLight 405, Alexa Fluor® 488, Rhodamine Red-X, and Alexa Fluor® 647.

Fluorophore Excitation Peak Emission Peak (nm)
DyLight 405 400 421
Brilliant Violet 421™ 407 421
Aminomethylcoumarin, AMCA 350 450
Brilliant Violet 480™ 436 478
Cyanine, Cy2 492 510
Alexa Fluor® 488 493 519
Fluorescein, FITC/DTAF 492 520
Indocarbocyanine, Cy3 550 570
R-Phycoerythrin R-PE many, 488 580
Rhodamine Red-X, RRX 570 590
Alexa Fluor® 594 591 614
Allophycocyanin APC many, 650 660
Alexa Fluor® 647 651 667
Indodicarbocyanine, Cy5 650 670
Peridinin-Chlorophyll-protein PerCP many, 488 675
Alexa Fluor® 680 684 702
Alexa Fluor® 790 792 803

Download text Files for all fluorescent dye conjugates to compare excitation and emission spectra

Table 1. Approximate peak wavelengths of excitation and emission for all fluorophore-conjugated, affinity-purified secondary antibodies offered by Jackson ImmunoResearch in order by increasing peak of emission. Approximate values are given for purposes of comparing one fluorophore with another. Actual values may vary depending on the spectrophotometer used in each laboratory.

Fluorescent probes or fluorophores (fluorescent dyes or proteins) are coupled to a secondary antibody or streptavidin to allow visualization of an analyte. Each fluorophore has its own spectral characteristics, with excitation and emission spectra particular to the molecule. Use the spectral viewer to build dye panels and compare the suitability of dyes for your application.

Technical Information on Colloidal Gold

LM Grade 4 nm and EM Grade 6 nm, 12 nm, and 18 nm Colloidal Gold - Antibody Complexes